Treatment of diabetes
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The goal of treatment of the disease is to reduce it, and maintain normal glucose values in the blood, glycaemia.
To achieve this, there are two types of medication: non-insulin hypoglycaemics and insulin. The non-insulin treatment is used to reduce glycaemia and is only used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, when diet and physical exercise are not enough to regulate the level of sugar in the blood.
Type 1 diabetes must be treated with insulin, a hormone that is essential for life that is normally created by our bodies, and which needs to be replaced when a patient is unable to generate it. Insulin cannot be administered orally meaning it needs to be administered subcutaneously, usually with pre-filled pen injectors.
Although insulin treatment is essential in treating type 1 diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may also need it at some point in their illness.