Valvular heart disease: congenital anomalies of the mitral valve
What is valvular heart disease?
Congenital mitral stenosis tends to appear in the first two years of life,
and congenital mitral insufficiency occurs where there is an excess of liquid in the lung which causes breathing difficulties.
Symptoms of congenital mitral stenosis are:
- Slow weight gain
- Sweating when feeding
Congenital mitral insufficiency results in an increase in respiratory infections.
Who do congenital mitral valve anomalies affect?
Congenital mitral valve anomalies are rare and make up 0.5% of congenital heart defects.
The disease is detected via echocardiogram, which provides information on the valve’s components. This technique also allows any other associated damage present to be seen.
Congenital mitral stenosis requires different kinds of treatment depending on how severe it is.
- Mild damage and/or with few symptoms: conservative treatment initially with diuretics.
- Severe and/or a lot of symptoms: surgery is required.
Children who have undergone surgery can have a normal life but must be monitored by a cardiologist. However, as the child grows they may need a new procedure to adapt the valve to their growth until they reach adulthood.
In the case of congenital mitral insufficiency, surgical repair or replacement of the valve is necessary in patients with symptoms who have severe mitral insufficiency and do not respond to treatment.