Bone marrow transplant
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Patients must undergo a conditioning process (in the days leading up to haematopoietic stem cell infusion), which has a dual purpose of eliminating any residual tumour cells and encouraging the cells to graft and not be rejected.
Once the stem cells have been infused through a catheter, it is necessary to wait a period of 2 to 3 weeks until these cells are implanted in the patient and gradually give rise to a new haematopoietic system, originating from the infused stem cells (either from the patient or from a donor).
There are several types of transplant that can be used depending on the underlying disease and the stage of the disease.
According to donor type:
Autologous, when the donor is the patient, for which haematopoietic progenitors must be obtained prior to transplantation and then cryopreserved (frozen) until they are used.
Allogeneic, when non-patient progenitor cells are used. Within this group a distinction is made between identical HLA family donors (usually sibling), unrelated donors (identified through various international registers) and haploidentical donors, who are relatives sharing half of the histocompatibility genes.